E-Bus Scheduling


  • Emre Elmas Aalto University
  • Simone Zambrin Aalto University






The following Review Articles aims at reviewing available literature regarding the introduction of E-Buses in urban public transport networks, with particular focus on the scheduling constraints of both vehicles and crews.

Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) are the type of E-Buses taken into consideration in this review through the lens of the Electric Vehicle Scheduling Problem (E-VSP).

By introducing the planning processes and scheduling objectives that the implementation of e-buses requires, covering then the most impactful constraints that emerge with their adoption (both complete and partial), and concluding with the illustration of the five solution approaches to the scheduling problem deemed more relevant by the authors on the basis of information availability and frequency of use, the article attempts to provide the reader with holistic level information regarding the topic.

Kirjoittajan esittely

Simone Zambrin, Aalto University



Chao, Z., & Xiaohong, C. (2013). Optimizing battery electric bus transit vehicle scheduling with battery exchanging: Model and case study.

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 96, 2725-2736. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.306

Li, L., Lo, H. K., & Xiao, F. (2019). Mixed bus fleet scheduling under range and refueling constraints. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 104, 443-462. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2019.05.009

Olsen, N., & Kliewer, N. (2020). Scheduling Electric Buses in Public Transport: Modeling of the Charging Process and Analysis of Assumptions. Logist. Res., 13(1), 4. Available at: DOI: 10.23773/2020_4

Perumal, S. S., Dollevoet, T., Huisman, D., Lusby, R. M., Larsen, J., & Riis, M. (2021). Solution approaches for integrated vehicle and crew scheduling with electric buses. Computers & Operations Research, 132, 105268. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2021.105268

Perumal, S. S., Lusby, R. M., & Larsen, J. (2022). Electric bus planning & scheduling: A review of related problems and methodologies. European Journal of Operational Research, 301(2), 395-413. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2021.10.058

Reuer, J., Kliewer, N., & Wolbeck, L. (2015, July). The electric vehicle scheduling problem: A study on time-space network based and heuristic solution. In Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Systems in Public Transport (CASPT). Available at: http://www.rotterdam2015.caspt.org/proceedings/paper93.pdf.

Rogge, M., Van der Hurk, E., Larsen, A., & Sauer, D. U. (2018). Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure. Applied Energy, 211, 282-295. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.051

Tang, C., Shi, H., & Liu, T. (2023). Optimization of single-line electric bus scheduling with skip-stop operation. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 117, 103652. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2023.103652

Tang, X., Lin, X., & He, F. (2019). Robust scheduling strategies of electric buses under stochastic traffic conditions. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 105, 163-182. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2019.05.032

Teng, J., Chen, T., & Fan, W. D. (2020). Integrated approach to vehicle scheduling and bus timetabling for an electric bus line. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, 146(2), 04019073. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/JTEPBS.0000306.

Wang, J., Wang, H., Chang, A., & Song, C. (2022). Collaborative optimization of vehicle and crew scheduling for a mixed fleet with electric and conventional buses. Sustainability, 14(6), 3627. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063627




Elmas, E., & Zambrin, S. (2024). E-Bus Scheduling. Liikenne-vuosikirja, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.58956/liikenne.142996