Analysis of multimodal passenger terminal design and its effects on transfer penalty


  • Iina Rusanen Aalto University
  • Florian Wiest Aalto University





With public transit systems becoming more and more sophisticated, the likelihood of passengers having to transfer between modes or lines increases. Transferring burdens, the passenger with added mental and physical effort, referred to as transfer penalty, which has a negative effect on the travel experience. The physical design of multimodal transfer terminals, such as train stations, can have a significant effect on transfer penalties but has received relatively little attention in practice. The aim of this review essay is to create an understanding of the ways in which the physical design of terminals can influence the transfer penalties experienced by passengers. Our findings show that terminal design can influence transfer penalties through actual and perceived walking and waiting times at transfer as well as the pure transfer penalty. We identified distinct categories of design elements and of other parts of the transit systems that urban designers can employ in influencing these aspects.


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Rusanen, I., & Wiest, F. (2024). Analysis of multimodal passenger terminal design and its effects on transfer penalty. Liikenne-vuosikirja, 6(1).